Climate variability and climatic change threaten economic activity, human security and sustainable development in Southeast Asia, which contains some of the largest rain forest areas in the world. The region’s potential contribution to forest-related emissions, and to climate mitigation is significant. Carbon-dense forested systems that exist with the tropical peatlands and mangroves require special attention. Tropical peatlands cover only 0.25% of the global land surface, but contain as much as 6% of total global soil carbon stocks (Page et al. 2011). Carbon stocks in mangroves have not yet been estimated, but research shows that carbon density in these systems is as high as, or higher than that in peatlands. Southeast Asia is home to 56% of the world’s tropical peatlands and 35% of the world’s mangroves.